Some nations have not left the US since the war, but they have sent agents to assist in its security on US soil
Many countries that have not left the US since the second world war are now allowing Americans to visit the country freely again, but they are doing so only with bureaucratic caveats.
Out of more than 150 nations, mostly in the Mediterranean, the countries that have not left the US are the United States’ five original European colonies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas, Jamaica and Dominican Republic.
In addition, during the 1990s and 2000s, a number of nations, particularly Caribbean nations, were very dependent on the US market for tourist dollars and even made direct investments with many moving their currency for tourist use.
Since the signing of the first US-Caribbean bilateral free trade agreement in 1991, the US business intelligence group FastJet has made some progress in bringing in more tourists from Europe, helping Caribbeans and Dominicans to better compete with US tourism to Miami and other US destinations.
With no prospect of immediate solutions, some nations are now not allowing their citizens to travel at all.
Tourism is often controversial in developing countries as domestic policy responses go against increasing business competition from western nations. For example, Sudan allowed its citizens to travel, without passport control, to the US in 2003. Now, however, the policy is applied only to western tourists.
“We are not permitted to sell tickets for any airline until 2011,” said Amin Aalam, a travel agent.
Tourism was one of the big areas of investments in Haiti which was affected by the 2010 earthquake.
Tourism initially flowed into the country through RTC Jackson, a firm based in Miami. However, the US Federal Aviation Administration said the firm did not have the necessary licence to oversee aircraft operators in Haiti and banned direct flights between the two countries.
Since then, routes have become increasingly short with most flights passing through the Dominican Republic and then returning to Miami.
In 1982, Panama, the Canal and the US agreed that the US was temporarily allowed to operate under the Panamanian flag.
By 1985, flights from Florida were allowed between the two countries. However, in 1990, American state officials began a one-year ban on Panamanian aviation in the wake of a US drug scandal involving Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega.
In 1992, US officials turned the page on the affair, allowing flights to continue between Miami and Panama. More than 400 weekly flights between the two countries carried nearly 2 million passengers in 1993. By 1995, around one million passengers travelled annually between the two countries.